11/19/2008 master seni 0 Comments

Calligraphy is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996: 17). A contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner" (Mediavilla 1996: 18). The story of writing is one of aesthetic evolution framed within the technical skills, transmission speed(s) and materials limitations of a person, time and place (Diringer 1968: 441). A style of writing is described as a script, hand or alphabet (Fraser & Kwiatkowski 2006; Johnston 1909: Plate 6).

Modern calligraphy ranges from functional hand lettered inscriptions and designs to fine art pieces where the abstract expression of the handwritten mark may or may not supersede the legibility of the letters (Mediavilla 1996). Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may create all of these; characters are historically disciplined yet fluid and spontaneous, improvised at the moment of writing (Pott 2006 & 2005; Zapf 2007 & 2006). Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding and event invitations, font design/ typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious art, various announcements/ graphic design/ commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions and memorial documents. Also props and moving images for film and television, testimonials, birth and death certificates/maps, and other works involving writing (see for example Letter Arts Review; Propfe 2005; Geddes & Dion 2004).

Western calligraphy

Historical evolution

Western calligraphy is recognizable by the use of the Roman alphabet, which evolved from the Phoenician, Greek, and Etruscan alphabets. The first Roman alphabet appeared about 600 BC, in Rome, and by the first century developed into Roman imperial capitals carved on stones, Rustic capitals painted on walls, and Roman cursive for daily use. In the second and third centuries the Uncial lettering style developed. It was the monasteries which preserved the calligraphy traditions during the fourth and fifth centuries, when the Roman Empire finally fell and Europe entered the Dark Ages.

At the height of the Roman Empire its power reached as far as Great Britain; when the empire fell, its literary influence remained. The Semi-uncial generated the Irish Semi-uncial, the small Anglo-Saxon. Each region seemed to have develop its own standards following the main monastery of the region (i.e. Merovingian script, Laon script, Luxeuil script, Visigothic script, Beneventan script) which are mostly cursive and hardly readable.

Raising of the Carolingian Empire encouraged to set a new standardized script, developed by several famous monasteries (including Corbie Abbey and Beauvais) around the eighth century. Finally the script from Saint Martin de Tours was set as the Imperial standard, named the Carolingian script (or "the Caroline"). From the powerful Carolingian Empire, this standard also became used in neighbouring kingdoms.

In the eleventh century, the Caroline evolved into the Gothic script, which was more compact and making it possible to fit more text on a page. The Gothic calligraphy styles became dominant in northern Europe; and in 1454 AD, when Johannes Gutenberg developed the first printing press, in Mainz, Germany, he adopted the Gothic style, making it the first typeface.
Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. The Bible was hand written in Belgium, by Gerard Brils, for reading aloud in a monastery.

In the sixteenth century, the rediscovery of old Carolingian texts encouraged the creation of the Antiqua script (about 1470). The seventeenth century saw the Batarde script from France, and the eighteenth century saw the English script spread across Europe and world by their books.

The contemporary typefaces found on every computer, whether in simple word processing programs like Microsoft Word or Apple Pages, through to a professional designer's software package like Adobe InDesign, owe a considerable debt to the past and to a small number of professional typeface designers today (Zapf 2007; Mediavilla 2006; Henning 2002).

Features of western calligraphy

Sacred western calligraphy has some special features, such as the illumination of the first letter of each book or chapter in medieval times. A decorative "carpet page" may precede, filled with geometrical, bestial and colourful depictions. The Lindisfarne Gospels (715-720 AD) is an early example (Brown 2004).

As for Chinese or Arabian calligraphies, western calligraphic script had strict rules and shapes. Quality writing had a rhythm and regularity to the letters, with a "geometrical" good order of the lines on the pages. Each character had, and often still has, a precise stroke order.

Unlike a typeface, irregularity in the characters' size, style and colors adds meaning to the Greek translation "beautiful letters". The content may be completely illegible, but no less meaningful to a viewer with some empathy for the work on view. Many of the themes and variations of today's contemporary Western calligraphy are found in the pages of the Saint John's Bible.

East Asian calligraphy

Names and features

Asian calligraphy typically uses ink brushes to write Chinese characters (called Hanzi in Chinese, Hanja in Korean, Kanji in Japanese, and Hán Tự in Vietnamese). Calligraphy (in Chinese, Shufa 書法, in Korean, Seoye 書藝, in Japanese Shodō 書道, all meaning "the way of writing") is considered an important art in East Asia and the most refined form of East Asian painting.

Calligraphy has also influenced ink and wash painting, which is accomplished using similar tools and techniques. Calligraphy has influenced most major art styles in East Asia, including sumi-e, a style of Chinese, Korean, and Japanese painting based entirely on calligraphy.

Historical evolution of eastern calligraphy

Ancient China

In ancient China, the oldest Chinese characters existing are Jiǎgǔwén characters carved on ox scapula and tortoise plastrons, because brush-written ones have decayed over time. During the divination ceremony, after the cracks were made, the characters were written with a brush on the shell or bone to be later carved.(Keightley, 1978).

With the development of Jīnwén (Bronzeware script) and Dàzhuàn (Large Seal Script) "cursive" signs continued. Moreover, each archaic kingdom of current China had its own set of characters. So, currently as of 2008, Chinese calligraphy has been declared as the first of it's kind, and China has been credited with it's invention. See the Topic on the Symbols of tulee more references.

Imperial China

In Imperial China, the graphs on old steles — some dating from 200 BC, and in Xiaozhuan style — are still accessible.

About 220 BC, the emperor Qin Shi Huang, the first to conquer the entire Chinese basin, imposed several reforms, among them Li Si's character uniformisation, which created a set of 3300 standardized Xiǎozhuàn characters[4]. Despite the fact that the main writing implement of the time was already the brush, few papers survive from this period, and the main examples of this style are on steles.

The Lìshū style (clerical script) which is more regularized, and in some ways similar to modern text, was then developed.

Kǎishū style (traditional regular script) — still in use today — is even more regularized. The Kaishu shape of characters 1000 years ago was mostly similar to that at the end of Imperial China. But small changes have be made, for example in the shape of which is not absolutely the same in the Kangxi dictionary of 1716 as in modern books. The Kangxi and current shapes have tiny differences, while stroke order is still the same, according to old style.

Kǎishū simplified Chinese script is in fact a selection of long-time pre-existing easiest variants, which were unconventional or localy used for centuries, and understood but always rejected in official texts. By selecting this easiest variants, the Chinese government created in 1956 a new set of official variants to use, simpler, to ease learning and increase literacy.

Cursive styles and hand-written styles

Cursive styles such as Xíngshū (semi-cursive or running script) and Cǎoshū (cursive or grass script) are "high speed" calligraphic styles, where each move made by the writing tool is visible. These styles especially like to play with stroke order rules, creating new visual effects. They were invented as derivated work from Clerical script, in same time than Regular script (Han dynasty), but Xíngshū and Cǎoshū were use for personnal notes only, and were never use as standard. They quickly became artistical play, on the side of the official Regular style.

Printed and computer ones

An example of the modern printed style is Songti (style of the Song Dynasty's book press), and the dozens of computer ones. These sets are other "styles," but not calligraphic ones, as they are not hand written.

Indian calligraphy

On the subject of Indian calligraphy, Anderson 2008 writes:

Aśoka's edicts (c. 265–238 BC) were committed to stone. These inscriptions are stiff and angular in form. Following the Aśoka style of Indic writing, two new calligraphic types appear: Kharoṣṭī and Brāhmī. Kharoṣṭī was used in the northwestern regions of India from the 3rd century BC to the 4th century of the Christian Era, and it was used in Central Asia until the 8th century.

Copper was a favoured material for Indic inscriptions. In the north of India, birch bark was used as a writing surface as early as the 2nd century AD. Many Indic manuscripts were written on palm leaves, even after the Indian languages were put on paper in the 13th century. Both sides of the leaves were used for writing. Long rectangular strips were gathered on top of one another, holes were drilled through all the leaves, and the book was held together by string. Books of this manufacture were common to Southeast Asia. The palm leaf was an excellent surface for penwriting, making possible the delicate lettering used in many of the scripts of southern Asia.

Nepalese calligraphy

Nepalese calligraphy has a huge impact on Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism. Ranjana script is the primary form of this calligraphy. The script itself and its derivatives (like Lantsa, Phagpa, Kutila) are used in Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan, Leh, Mongolia, coastal China, Japan and Korea to write "Om mane pame om" and other sacred Buddhist texts, mainly those derived from Sanskrit and Pali.

Tibetan calligraphy

Calligraphy is central in Tibetan culture. The script is derived from Indic scripts. The nobles of Tibet, such as the High Lamas and inhabitants of the Potala Palace, were usually capable calligraphers. Tibet has been a center of Buddhism for several centuries, and that religion places a great deal of significance on written word. This does not provide for a large body of secular pieces, although they do exist (but are usually related in some way to Tibetan Buddhism). Almost all high religious writing involved calligraphy, including letters sent by the Dalai Lama and other religious and secular authority. Calligraphy is particularly evident on their prayer wheels, although this calligraphy was forged rather than scribed, much like Arab and Roman calligraphy is often found on buildings. Although originally done with a reed, Tibetan calligraphers now use chisel tipped pens and markers as well.

Iranian calligraphy

Persian calligraphy

Persian calligraphy is the calligraphy of Persian writing system. The history of calligraphy in Persia dates back to the pre-Islam era. In Zoroastrianism beautiful and clear writings were always praised.

History of Iranian Calligraphy

It is believed that ancient Persian script was invented by about 500-600 BC to provide monument inscriptions for the Achaemenid kings. These scripts consisted of horizontal, vertical, and diagonal nail-shape letters and that is the reason in Persian it is called “Script of Nails” (Khat-e-Mikhi). Centuries later, other scripts such as “Pahlavi” and “Avestaee” scripts became popular in ancient Persia. After initiation of Islam in the 7th century, Persians adapted Arabic alphabet to Persian language and developed contemporary Persian alphabet. Arabic alphabet has 28 characters and Iranians added another four letters in it to arrive at existing 32 Persian letters.

Major Contemporary Classical Persian Calligraphy Scripts

“Nasta'liq” is the most popular contemporary style among classical Persian calligraphy scripts and Persian calligraphers call it “Bride of the Calligraphy Scripts”. This calligraphy style has been based on such a strong structure that it has changed very little since. Mir Ali Tabrizi had found the optimum composition of the letters and graphical rules so it has just been fine-tuned during the past seven centuries. It has very strict rules for graphical shape of the letters and for combination of the letters, words, and composition of the whole calligraphy piece.

Islamic calligraphy

A page of a 12th century Qur'an written in the Andalusi script

Islamic calligraphy (calligraphy in Arabic is Khatt ul-Yad خط اليد) is an aspect of Islamic art that has evolved alongside the religion of Islam and the Arabic language.

Arabic calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art (arabesque) on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions.

Instead of recalling something related to the spoken word, calligraphy for Muslims is a visible expression of the highest art of all, the art of the spiritual world. Calligraphy has arguably become the most venerated form of Islamic art because it provides a link between the languages of the Muslims with the religion of Islam. The holy book of Islam, al-Qur'an, has played an important role in the development and evolution of the Arabic language, and by extension, calligraphy in the Arabic alphabet. Proverbs and passages from the Qur'an are still sources for Islamic calligraphy.

There was a strong parallel tradition to that of the Islamic, among Aramaic and Hebrew scholars, seen in such works as the Hebrew illuminated bibles of the 9th and 10th centuries.

Maya Calligraphy

A leaflet of the Dresden Codex written in the Maya Script on a type of paper called amatl. The Dresden Codex is one of only a few examples of Maya Calligraphy to escape the destruction of the Spanish Conquistadores and survive to the present day.
Maya calligraphy was expressed as glyphs; modern Mayan calligraphy is mainly used on seals and monuments in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Glyphs are rarely used in government offices, however in Campeche, Yucatan and Quintana Roo, Mayan calligraphy is written with Latin alphabet characters. Some commercial companies in Southern Mexico use glyphs as symbols of their business. Some community associations and modern Maya brotherhoods use glyphs as symbols of their groups.

Most of the archaeological sites in Mexico such as Chichen Itza, Labna, Uxmal, Edzna, Calakmul, etc. have glyphs in their structures. Stone carved monuments also known as stele are a common source of ancient Maya calligraphy.


The principal tools for a calligrapher are the pen, which may be flat- or round-nibbed and the brush (Reaves & Schulte 2006; Child 1985; Lamb 1956). For some decorative purposes, multi-nibbed pens—steel brushes—can be used. However, works have also been made with felt-tip and ballpoint pens, although these works do not employ angled lines. Ink for writing is usually water-based and much less viscous than the oil based inks used in printing. High quality paper, which has good consistency of porosity, will enable cleaner lines, although parchment or vellum is often used, as a knife can be used to erase work on them and a light box is not needed to allow lines to pass through it. In addition, light boxes and templates are used to achieve straight lines without pencil markings detracting from the work. Lined paper, either for a light box or direct use, is most often lined every quarter or half inch, although inch spaces are occasionally used, such as with litterea unciales (hence the name), and college ruled paper acts as a guideline often as well.

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Berikut Foto Pesan dan Kesan Siswa/i Online yang Lulus ke FSRD ITB dan namanya ingin dicantumkan di web kamiPhotobucket"Informasi selengkapnya dapat dilihat di web kami siswa-siswi,

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Gilang Danahiswara (FSRD ITB 2009)Photobucket

Isni Sarah S.(FSRD ITB 2010)Photobuckethmmm, dibaca yang bener paketnya... apalagi buat gambar 2... waktu tes jangan lihat gambar orang, jangan mikir lama, jangan takut salah. APAPUN YANG TERJADI PD AJA. walaupun gambar 1 nya ngaco dan salah baca, foto di riwayat hidup lupa ditempel, corat-coret logo itb di soal, dan dipanggil pengawas gara2 tanda tangan ga jelas, akhirnya gara2 pengetahuan 'extraordinary' tentang gambar 2 yang diberikan master saya bisa diterima, thank you master :) oh iya, rajin-rajin baca komik doraemon :p

Irene Angelina C. (FSRD ITB 2010)Photobucketsya yg berterima kasih sm master, jujur aja kalo ga belajar dr paket master seni team saya sama sekali tdak ada gambaran utk USM kemarin..=)

trik: qt harus bikin gambar qt beda dr peserta lain pd umumnya dan kalau menghadapi tipe soal baru (biasanya Psikotest) jangan panik meskipun tipe soal tsb ga dicantumin d paket master seni (kemarin sy dapat soal psikotest 3D). kunciny tetep qt jgn ngambil contoh yg udah ada,tp qt hrus bikin sesuatu yg baru dr imajinasi qt..

tips: kalo dapet soal, soal nya jangan dibaca, tapi digambar...hehehehehehe

segitu aja kali yah..^_____________^

M. Risfan Badrus Salam (FSRD ITB 2010)Photobucket"Alhamdulillah paketnya master merubahku dari -100 jadi +100 :) Jadi tau apa yang harus dilakukan dan apa yang harus dihindari. Benar-benar membantu. Kita jadi yakin dan bersemangat

Hajar Asyura (FSRD ITB 2010)Photobucketpaket dari Mas Ter pahami dengan benar. cobalah hal baru karena bisa menambah inspirasi buat gambarmu. terus berpikir hal hal yang kreatif dan nggak biasa setiap saat... latihan, dan jangan lupa berdoa....!!!

Adryana Putri (FSRD ITB 2010)PhotobucketBuat temen-temen yang pake Paket Master Seni, rajin berlatih ya, percuma kalo ga latihan. Banyak-banyak kumpulin soal dari Master terus digambar. Sering-sering update juga ke Jadi ga cuma soal gambar aja yang bisa kamu dapet, tapi juga gambar 2 dan psikotes plus tips and trick juga.
Terus waktu tes jangan grogi, kalau udah sering latihan pasti bisa hehe. :D

Deni Wirawardhana (FSRD ITB 2010)Photobucketoh iya iya... ;) tips & trik nya : baca paket dari master berulang-ulang, soalnya setiap kata-katanya penting banget!! ketika ujiannya, semua bagian yang diujikan harus dikerjakan secara maksimal... sepertinya psikotesnya berpengaruh besar, soalny waktu saya ujian cuma psikotes yang paling bisa...

Prizqy Nada Qinthara (FSRD ITB 2010)Photobucket

Muhammad Ghiantara (FSRD ITB 2011)Photobucket"tips n trik nya sama kaya yg master ajarkan , cuman nambahin dikit, waktu itu gia sisakan waktu 10 menit untuk meng arsir di bagian gambar yg kosong jadi gambar trlihat penuh. Cara ini gia baca di salah satu buku arsitek :):)"

Anthoni Reza (FSRD ITB 2011)Photobucket
-selalu bawa kamera atau setidaknya kamera handphone buat mengamati objek-objek di lingkungan sekitar
-gunakan waktu luang untuk latihan menggambar/belajar snmptn, kalau lagi dalam kondisi malas gambar suasana, gambar saja dulu yang ringan2 dari objek yang difoto lewat hp atau cari referensi lewat internet
-coba dengerin lagu untuk motivasi buat penambah semangat dan penghilang stress (in my case : Fantasia - I believe, hehe )
-jangan pernah putus asa/sakit hati kalau hasil penilaian gambar kalian dibilang kurang maksimal, truslah latihan dan yakinlah :):)
-banyak-banyak latihan,berdoa dan konsultasi ke master seni tim Oh iya satu lagi dan yang paling penting

menjelang ujian keterampilan disekitar tempat ujian, bawa saja paket masterseni sebagai bacaan ringan :):)

Robithoh Akbar Irzain (FSRD ITB 2011)Photobucket
:-D:-D halo juga nya belajar di master.... :-D:-D dan banyak latihan gambar 1,,

Debby Rahmalia (FSRD ITB 2012)Photobucket
"hmm pesan ya master, pertama mesti baca pelan paket dari master, pahami, dan latihan terus, gapapa kalo nilainya naik turun pengalaman ! hehe... terus, materi ujian tulisnya yg dasar sama ips juga musti dipelajari, biar nambah nilai, pas ujian, jangan ngeliat kanan kiri, mending kalo gambarnya ga bagus, kalo bagus ide gamabrnya, kitanya drop didetik detik terakhir gapapa, jangan panik, walaupun gara gara pensil patah arsiran dikit lagi ga siap, gapapa, yg dipentingin kualitas bukan kuantitas kaya yg dibilangin master. kalo bisa sebelum tes teriak sama loncat loncat dulu biar tenang hahaha

Rifky Renardi (FSRD ITB 2012)Photobucket

Frastika G (FSRD ITB 2012)Photobucket
"makasii banyak master!! rumus jitunya bener2 oke banget deeh! buat 2013 harus beli paketnya nih! dan kalau udah beli JANGAN SAMPE GA DIPELAJARI, GA IKUT TRY OUT DAN GA KONSUL! RUGI! semangaaaaat yaaa! [:)] usaha + doa + restu orang tua = lulus! (aamiin)"

Gilang Ayyoubi Hartanto (FSRD ITB 2012)Photobucket
"terimakasih master, hehe. pelajaran yg udah dikasih master berguna bgt, dan yang penting percaya diri, yakin kemampuan kita nggak kalah sama orang lain. pokoknya intinya percaya diri deh hehe"

Salma Tsaniya (FSRD ITB 2013)Photobucket
"terimakasih master isi paketnya sangat membantu xD karya-karya yg ada di dalam paket idenya kreatif itu membuat saya jadi terinspirasi :D oh ya kalau jangan lupa jg perhatikan poin poin penting yg ada di paket! menggambar dengany poin poin yg diberikan di paket dan terus konsultasi insyaAllah masuk FSRD :D terimakasih master :) "

Ghulbuddin Said Yunus (FSRD ITB 2013)Photobucket
"pesan sya untuk yang calon2 FSRD tahun2 brikutnya cuma "always keep spirit" jauh2 hari....pokoknya slalu berpikir kreatif dan beda dari yang lain :) ,..dan pas ujian kterampilan di bawa enjoy aja,., dan jangan lupa berdoanya yang kuuaaat., :) .,suksees^_^ "

Shifa Annisa (FSRD ITB 2013)Photobucket
"Makasiii beribu-ribu makasi masteeer~ ^^ Tips-tips nya bermanfaat bangeet.. Buat yg angkatan 2014 nanti ni, pokoknya latihan dan pelajari terus paketnya master~
Ntar pas hari H nya gak usah grogi dan bawa enjoy ajaa.. Terus jangan lupa berdoa, jangan takabur jugaa~ PD ajaa, kalian pasti bisaa ^^"

Surya Harta Adi (FSRD ITB 2014 )Photobucket"Kesan dan Pesan: Pertama kali tau Master Seni pas searching2 di internet gara2 galau gatau tipe soal fsrd itb kayak apa, akhirnya ketemu deh sama master!! Langsung aja pesen dan ternyata isinya emang bermanfaat banget temen-temen! Kita jadi tau tipe-tipe soal yang biasanya dikeluarin sama ITB, dan jadi tau juga trik jawab soal yang tepat, dan singkat waktunya pula . Cara-cara untuk mancing kreatifitas kita dalam menjawab soal, dan teknik gambar juga diajarin kok! Tenang aja, yang penting kita banyak berlatih dan sering konsultasi juga sama Master. Sukses ya buat adik-adik yang mau masuk FSRD ITB!! Beli paket dari master seni emang suatu kewajiban banget deh!! Isi berkualitas dengan harga yang yahud kalo dibanding bimbel-bimbel yang lain! Thanks Master Seni! (Siswa online Surya Harta Adi - Mahasiswa FSRD ITB 2014)"

Almira yasmine (FSRD ITB 2014 )Photobucket"belajar seni di master seni mantap banget :D semua yang diajarkan pokoknya bermanfaat, pokoknya pas banget buat yang minat seni maupun desain..
terimakasih untuk ilmunya, sukses selalu buat master seni" :D (Almira Yasmine)"

Annisa Notonagoro (FSRD ITB 2014 )Photobucket"kesan:enak bgt ngajarnya, balesnya nya juga cepet. Kalo konsultasi kesannya ga menggurui. Terus penjelasannya juga jelas bgt gilaaa hahaha.
pesan:pokok nya harus bgt beli master seni, kalo mau masuk fsrd itb tapi males les gambar ehehe"

Raja Leonard Sihombing (FSRD ITB 2015 )Photobucket"kesan:"Adaa kak..Semuanya yg disediakan di paket Master Seni benar2 worth it !!Pelajari tekun, latihan selalu.. Dan yang paling utama.. Berdoa selalu.. setiap saat.^^sekali lagi..Terima kasih Master Seni^^"

Muhammad Daud (FSRD ITB 2015 )Photobucket

Trisha Nadira (FSRD ITB 2015 )Photobucket"kesan:"Paketnya lengkap, pengajarnya oke dan bakal dapet tips & trik yg sangat berguna untuk bisa masuk fsrd. Apapun kelemahan yg dimiliki, di Master Seni kemampuan akan terus diasah hingga bisa memenuhi kriteria fsrd."

Keila Ayu Anandasita (FSRD ITB 2016 )Photobucket

Ghina Ramadhani (FSRD ITB 2016 )Photobucket"kesan:
Alhamdulillah belajar privat di Master Seni sangat membantu meskipun capek, yakin saja kerja keras gak akan menghianati. Work Hard Stay Humble, Kawan ! Bismillah !"

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